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Buddhism

The Buddha was born as the prince Siddhartha Gautama in the Kingdom of Sakyas in Nepal around around 560 BC and was protected from seeing or knowing of suffering of the people in his kingdom throughout his early years. After discovering the truth, he devoted his life to the end of suffering. After six years of searching, studying with various gurus, fasting, meditating and devotion to finding the truth, he finally gained enlightenment while meditating under a Bodhi Tree (tree of awakening) and was then known as the Buddha (the awakened or enlightened one).

Upon his enlightenment, the Buddha spent 45 years teaching how to achieve liberation from suffering through practice of righteousness (dharma) and principles of living each life on earth (karma) which would eventually lead to the state of nirvana, a perfect state of peace and enlightenment.

Dharma is broken down into the Four Noble Truths.

Four Noble Truths

1. Duhkha
2. Samudaya
3. Nirodha
4. Magga

The fact of universal suffering
The cause of suffering
The overcoming of suffering
The way of overcoming suffering

Suffering is caused by selfish desires and attachments, and the way of overcoming suffering is by following the middle way, or the Noble Eightfold Path.

Noble Eightfold Path

Three Ideals

Path

Wisdom
(panna)

1. Right View, Understanding or Knowledge
2. Right Thought or Attitude

Morality
(sila)

3. Right Speech
4. Right Action
5. Right Livelihood

Meditation
(samadhi)

6. Right Effort
7. Right Mindfulness
8. Right Contemplation, Concentration, or Composure

Karma

Karma is the cause and effect of good or bad thoughts and actions of previous lives on earth.

Reincarnation

Reincarnation is the rebirth cycle on the earthly (carnal) plane of existence. It continues until the karma cycle is broken through right thoughts and actions, eventually leading to the state of enlightenment. Persons who have incarnated many times are referred to as old souls.

Three Characteristics of Existence

  1. Transiency (anicca)
  2. Sorrow (dukkha)
  3. Selflessness (anatta)

Factors of Enlightenment

  1. Mindfulness
  2. Investigation
  3. Energy
  4. Rapture
  5. Tranquillity
  6. Concentration
  7. Equanimity

Hindrances

  1. Sensuous lust
  2. Aversion and ill will
  3. Sloth and torpor
  4. Restlessness and worry
  5. Sceptical doubt



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